Health III





1.  Before Giving Care                                                                          

     A. Emergencies are often signaled by something unusual

            1. Sights

            2. Appearances or behaviors

            3. Odors

            4. Noises

     B. It may be hard to recognize an emergency or sudden illness

            1. Check the person

            2. Ask Questions

            3. A person may deny something is seriously wrong

2.  Overcoming Barriers

      A. Why people fail to act

            1. The presence of other people

            2. Being unsure of the ill or injured person’s condition

            3. The type of injury or illness

            4. Fear of catching a disease

            5. Fear of doing something wrong

            6. Fear of being sued

      B.  Ways to overcome barriers

            1. First aid training, develop confidence

            2. Avoid contact with blood + bodily fluids

                a. Gloves

                b. face shields, barriers

            c. Familiar with Good Samaritan Law

3.  Good Samaritan Law

      A. All 50 states have enacted the Good Samaritan Law:

           Legal protection to people who willingly give emergency care to an ill or injured

           person without accepting anything in return.

1.      Act as a reasonable and prudent person

2.      Act in good faith

3.      Not be deliberately negligent or reckless

4.      Act within the scope of his/her training

5.      Not abandon the person after starting to give care

4.  Obtaining Consent

      A. Before giving first aid to a conscious adult, you must obtain his/her consent or

           permission.  A conscious person has the right to either refuse or accept care.

      B. To obtain consent

            1. State your name

            2. Tell the person you are trained in first aid

            3. Ask the person if you can help

            4. Explain what you think may be wrong

            5. Explain what you plan to do

       C. If a person does not give consent, call 911 and remain with the victim.

       D. If person is an infant or child ask parent or guardian if present, if not then you

           may assist victim.

When to call 911 – Access Situation – If injuries are life threatening, you are unable to move the victim, they are unconscious, situation is beyond your scope of knowledge, sever bleeding or shock.



     1. Shock is a life threatening condition in which not enough blood is being delivered to all parts of the body and can result from injury, illness, physical or emotional trauma.  This condition requires immediate medical attention or body systems and organs can begin to fail.


    Signs of Shock

a. Restlessness or Irritability

b. Altered levels of Consciousness

c. Nausea or Vomiting

d. Rapid Breathing and Pulse

e. Pale or Ashen, cool, moist skin

f. Excessive Thirst


    First Aid for Shock

A. Make Sure 911 has been Called

b. Continue to Monitor ABC’s

c. Control and External Bleeding

d. Keep victim from getting Chilled or Over Heated

e. Elevate the legs about 12 inches, only head, neck and back are uninjured.

f. Comfort and reassure Victim.




     Check – Call – Care

1. Check

      a. Check the Scene

          - Is scene safe to approach and is it safe for the victim to remain.

          - The scene can give you answers, what happened.

         - How many victims are injured, how bad they are hurt. Look beyond first


-         Are there any bystanders who can help?

-         Identify yourself as a rescuer

a. Let victim and bystanders know who you are and what you are doing.

b. Reassures Victim.

c. Helps you take charge

d. Let other First Aid providers know you are there.

e. If conscious, ask for permission.

f. If unconscious, consent implied.


b. Talk to victim, ask…

    - What happened ?

   - Where does it hurt ?

c. Check

    - Breathing

   - Bleeding, cuts

   - Bumps, Bruises or Depressions

   - Head to Toe Search

d. If it is necessary to move the Victim

    - Immediate Danger

    - Access to another victim

    - Need to move victim to give First Aid.  

Methods to Move a Victim – Back Strap, Two Seat Carry, Clothes Drag.

Respiratory Emergencies


   3,000 people per year die due to choking.

    Common Causes Are:

       -Trying to swallow food that is too large, poorly chewed.

       - Drinking Alcohol, which can dull the nerves of the mouth.

       - Wearing Dentures, which cover nerves in the roof of the mouth and gums.

       - Eating, drinking while talking, laughing (air exchange).

      - Walking, playing with food or objects in the mouth.

A. Types of Obstructions

     1. Partial Obstruction/Good Air Exchange

         a. Victim can talk

         b. Can Breath

         c. Has a Forceful Cough

         d. Low Pitched Wheeze

      FIRST AID – Stay with the victim and encourage them to continue coughing.

            (do not slap victim on the back)

    2. Partial Obstruction/Poor Air Exchange

        a. Very little talking if any at all.

        b. Very little Breathing.

        c. Weak, Ineffective Cough.

        d. High Pitched Wheeze.

  FIRST AID – Treat as a Full Obstruction.

3. Full Obstruction

    NO Talking, Breathing, Coughing or Wheezing

   Victim will almost always grasp the throat, which is the UNIVERSAL SIGN FOR CHOKING.

FIRST AID – Back Blows and Abdominal Thrusts

 1. Check the Scene and the Victim

 2. Identify yourself and ask for Permission “ Are you choking? I know first aid, can

    I help you?”   CALL 911

 FIRST AID – 3. 5 Backs Blows followed by 5 Abdominal Thrusts.

    Make each an attempt to dislodge obstruction, creating an artificial cough.

4. Continue Until:

     - Object if coughed out

     - Person can breath or cough forcefully on their own

     - EMS Arrives and takes over for you

     - Person becomes unconscious

If You Are Alone, Perform Abdominal thrusts on yourself, use a chair. Pregnant or overweight, use back blows.

************************************************************************this is not on the test*this is not on the test*this is not on the test*this is not on the


Victim Young Adult or Younger who is not Breathing but has a Heart Beat

-Check for pulse at Carotid Artery

- Give Rescue Breaths, one every 5 seconds for 12 breaths or approximately one minute.

- Recheck Pulse, If Pulse Remains Continue 1 breath/5 seconds for 12 breaths. If no pulse move forward to CPR.

-Continue Until

  Victim Revives, EMS Arrive, Another Trained Rescuer Takes Over, You Are Too Exhausted to Continue, Scene Becomes Unsafe.



Checking an Unconscious Adult


I. CHECK - The Scene - Is it safe to approach the victim?


  - Is it safe for you and the victim to stay, 

     if not you must  move the victim.                                     

   - What Happened ?

   - How Many Victims?

   - Are there any Bystanders who can help?

   - Condition of the Victims. (Most Critical)

   - The Victim - Check first for CONSCIOUSNESS

            " Are you Okay?"  If no response Call Immediately!!


II. CALL -  911 or the Local Emergency Number   

           - If a phone is available you place the call, if not, send

             someone else to make the call "YOU, call 911, our

             emergency is..."


      Information needed when making a 911 call

         - Callers Name

         - Exact Location

         - Telephone number (if needed)

         - What Happened

         - How many Victims

         - Condition of the Victims

         - Any Help Being Given



III. CARE - Care for Victims Injuries

                - Check for Signs of Life, No more than 10 seconds.

                  Tilt victims head back to open the AIRWAY

      ( the most common cause of an airway obstruction in an

        UNCONSCIOUS victim is the tongue blocking the throat)






       LOOK , LISTEN and FEEL for breathing and signs of life...

           Look - at the chest for movement

           Listen - for breathing

           Feel - with your cheek for air escaping the victim

          - If no signs of life...Give TWO RESCUE BREATHS


           Keep head tilted back - Pinch the victims nose shut

          Take a normal breath yourself and exhale into the victim,

           repeat this a second time. Watch the chest to see it rise

          and fall.

           The AIR AROUND US CONTAINS 21% OXYGEN, with each

           Breath our body uses 5% of that Oxygen, we exhale

           Carbon Dioxide as well as 15% oxygen.



     Heart Attack

First Aid

            1. Recognize the signs and symptoms of a heart attack.

                a.) Persistent Chest Pain or Discomfort

                b.) Left Arm Pain, may travel to neck, shoulder or jaw.

                c.) Shortness of Breath

                d.) Nausea, Dizziness, Skin may appear pale.

                e.) Sweating

                f.) Denial


            2. Have victim sit or lie down in a comfortable position.


            3. Call EMS, do not drive victim to the hospital yourself.


Prevent a Heart Attack Before it Happens

Risk Factors

Cannot Control:                                       Can Control:

1. Heredity    ( Family)                             1. Weight

2. Gender     (Male)                                   2. Diet (Saturated Fats)

3. Age      (Older)                                        3. Exercise

4. Race   (African American)               4. Smoking

                                                                            5. High Blood Pressure

                                                                            6. Stress

                                                                            7. Uncontrolled Diabetes  



Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation - CPR

Purpose – To supply oxygen to the cells of the body when the heart has ceased to function.

Biological Death – Heart and Lungs have ceased to function.

Clinical Death – No brain function.

Check – The Scene

                    The Victim :

          Check For Unresponsiveness “Are you OK?” – No Response

          Call – Call EMS – Victim is unconscious, no breathing and no


           Look, Listen and Feel for signs of life no longer than 10


           Give victim 2 rescue breaths.      

           Care – Start CPR

                1. Be sure victim is on a firm, flat surface.

                2. Head on same level as heart.

                3. Kneel at the victims side, facing the victim.

                4. Place hands on the center of the victims CHEST, lock out

                    the elbows and position your shoulders directly overtop

                    of your hands. Use your body weight to compress chest.

                5. 30 compression/2 breaths = 1 cycle of CPR

                     ( Compressions should be 1 1/2  – 2 inches in depth,

                        given at the rate of 100 per minute)

                6. After breaths go immediately to chest compressions and

                    start the cycle over again.

Continue Until

A. Victim shows obvious signs of life.

B. The scene becomes unsafe.

C. Another trained rescuer takes over for you.

D. EMS Arrive.

E. You are too exhausted to continue.



Automated External Defibrillator

*Most victims of Cardiac Arrest are in need of an electric shock called DEFIBRILLATION.

*** Each minute that defibrillation is delayed reduces the chance of survival by about 10%. 1 minute = 90%,  2 minutes = 80%    etc.

Check – Call – Care

Check – the scene and the victim, “Are You OK?”

Call – Call or send someone to call EMS, Send some for an AED

Check for signs of life (no more than 10 seconds) Give 2 Breaths

Care – Start CPR, 30 compressions & 2 breaths until AED Arrives

*** -Stop CPR

-         Turn on AED

-         Apply Pads – Victims – Upper Right, Lower Left Chest

-         Clean chest Area ( Shave if Necessary)

-         DO not use Alcohol pads to clean chest

-         Remove any medication patches with a gloved hand

-         Make sure no one is touching the victim

-         Let AED analyze victim

-         If shock advised, make sure no one is touching victim, victim not in water  or puddles

-         After shock, AED will analyze the victim again, If “no shock advised” and there are no signs of life, you should resume 5 cycles of CPR (about 2 minutes) then let AED analyze victim again.




Check - Call - Care

Check - The scene, Victim " Are you OK ?"

Call - 911

Care - Check for signs of life - give two breaths..........Air will NOT go into the victim

RETILT the victims head and attempt two more rescue breaths.

If unsuccessful you will assume that the victim has an airway obstruction.

Give the victim 30 Chest Compressions, as in CPR, but before giving 2 Breaths, tilt the victims head back and look for

 the obstruction. If one is visible, you will now perform a FINGER SWEEP and try to remove the item.

If you remove an item or not, you will next give 2 Rescue Breaths and continue with 30 Compressions.


 - The victim starts to cough or breath on their own.

 - Ems Arrive

 - Another trained rescuer takes over for you

 - The scene becomes unsafe

 - You are too exhausted to continue





Superficial cuts may bleed a great deal, but simple pressure applied over the cut with the palm

of the hand or fingers and a clean handkerchief or piece of gauze is usually enough to control it.

1. Clean the cut or scratch with warm running water and ordinary soap. Let the water run on it for

a few minutes to loosen the dirt. Then wipe out the dirt from the wound with a piece of moist cotton,

or facial tissue or toilet paper, if cotton is not available.

2. Do not pour iodine, alcohol, or any other medicine on a cut or scratch. They may burn the injured

area and delay healing. Besides, the running water will get rid of more germs than the alcohol or iodine.

3. To stop bleeding, press directly on the wounded area with your fingers and hand. Use a clean

handkerchief or a piece of gauze or cotton if it is available. Keep pressing steadily for several minutes

without stopping. This will usually stop bleeding in most ordinary cuts.

4. Don’t get frightened even if there seems to be a great deal of blood. Most cuts will slow down and

bleed very little after a few minutes.


  5. Don’t take any chances, however. It is always best to get help from a doctor. So even if bleeding has

stopped. Cover the injured area with a bandage or a clean handkerchief or, indoors, a clean napkin or

towel. Go to the nearest doctor’s office, or to the emergency room of the nearest hospital,
to get further direction. A wound that continues to bleed, or a wound where the edges are widely
 separated, frequently will need to be stitched. 


Impaled objects are items that have punctured the body’s soft tissue and are still  embedded. Depending on the location of the impalement and the size of the object, emergency medical response may be necessary. The course of treatment depends on several factors, but here are the basic steps to treat an impaled object.

It’s important to remain safe while helping a victim with an impaled object. Sharp objects, such as knives or nails, are not only capable of causing an injury to rescuers, but are also contaminated with the victim’s blood. Follow universal precautions and wear gloves if you have them.

Call 911 – Because of their complicated nature, even seemingly minor impaled objects require emergency medical response. DO NOT REMOVE IMPALED OBJECTS!! Impaled objects create a puncture wound and tamponade (put pressure on) that same wound, control bleeding. However, as with every rule there are exceptions.

Impaled Objects May Be Removed if:

  • The victim needs CPR and the object is in the way
  • The object is in the way of the victim’s airway

If an ambulance is not available or the victim must be moved, it will be necessary to secure  the object. Start by shortening the object if possible. The more of an object that sticks out of the body, the more leverage it has to do damage to surrounding tissues. After the object is as short as possible, secure it to prevent movement. The more movement of the impaled object, the more soft tissue damage it does and the more bleeding it will cause.


 First aid for bruises

1.Some bruises are not very severe and merely result in a black-and-blue mark in the skin; others are

very serious and may require surgery. All bruises result from bleeding into the skin or into the tissues

beneath the skin. Bruises are almost always caused either by a fall or by something hitting the body.


2.Most bleeding that takes place in the skin stops by itself and needs no first aid or other treatment.

Sometimes, however, the bleeding beneath the skin can be quite severe and will cause a big lump to form.

Such bruises are called hematomas.

3.If the bleeding beneath the skin seems to be continuing and the swelling is enlarging, then direct,

firm pressure should be applied over the area with the palm of the hand. If this pressure is continued

steadily for ten to fifteen minutes, it may stop the internal bleeding. Another way to stop the bleeding

is to put ice or an ice bag on the skin surface over the injured area. Ice or an ice bag should not be kept in place

 for more than fifteen to twenty minutes at a time, for if it is kept on too long, it may

cause a burn.  If ice is not available, cold compresses may help to control the bleeding.

4.If the hematoma is still present a few days after the injury originally happened, and if it feels soft and mushy when it is touched,

then in all likelihood fluid blood is present beneath the skin.

To cure this type of bruise, a doctor may have to stick a needle into the hematoma and draw out the

blood with a syringe.

If the blood is too thick to come out through the syringe, a surgeon will have to make a cut into the

hematoma in order to let out the blood. This will take care of the matter very quickly.


5.An ordinary black-and-blue bruise may take a few weeks before the discoloration disappears. During

that time the black-and-blue mark changes to a lighter blue or a purple, then to a green, then to tan,

then to light yellow, and finally the skin looks perfectly normal again.




Burns: First aid

To distinguish a minor burn from a serious burn, the first step is to determine the degree and the extent of damage to body tissues. The three classifications of first-degree burn, second-degree burn and third-degree burn will help you determine emergency care:

First-degree burn

The least serious burns are those in which only the outer layer of skin is burned. The skin is usually red, with swelling and pain sometimes present. The outer layer of skin hasn't been burned through. Treat a first-degree burn as a minor burn unless it involves substantial portions of the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or a major joint.

Second-degree burn

When the first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of skin (dermis) also is burned, the injury is called a second-degree burn. Blisters develop and the skin takes on an intensely reddened, splotchy appearance. Second-degree burns produce severe pain and swelling.

If the second-degree burn is no larger than 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter, treat it as a minor burn. If the burned area is larger or if the burn is on the hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or over a major joint, treat it as a major burn and get medical help immediately.

For minor burns, including first-degree burns and second-degree burns limited to an area no larger than 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter, take the following action:

Cool the burn. Hold the burned area under cold running water for at least five minutes, or until the pain subsides. If this is impractical, immerse the burn in cold water or cool it with cold compresses. Cooling the burn reduces swelling by conducting heat away from the skin. Don't put ice on the burn.

Cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage. Don't use fluffy cotton, which may irritate the skin. Wrap the gauze loosely to avoid putting pressure on burned skin. Bandaging keeps air off the burned skin, reduces pain and protects blistered skin.

Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others). Never give aspirin to children or teenagers.

Minor burns usually heal without further treatment. They may heal with pigment changes, meaning the healed area may be a different color from the surrounding skin. Watch for signs of infection, such as increased pain, redness, fever, swelling or oozing. If infection develops, seek medical help. Avoid re-injuring or tanning if the burns are less than a year old — doing so may cause more extensive pigmentation changes. Use sunscreen on the area for at least a year.


Don't use ice. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause frostbite, further damaging your skin.

Don't apply butter or ointments to the burn. This could prevent proper healing.

Don't break blisters. Broken blisters are vulnerable to infection.

Third-degree burn

The most serious burns are painless, involve all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage. Fat, muscle and even bone may be affected. Areas may be charred black or appear dry and white. Difficulty inhaling and exhaling, carbon monoxide poisoning, or other toxic effects may occur if smoke inhalation accompanies the burn.

For major burns, dial 911 or call for emergency medical assistance. Until an emergency unit arrives, follow these steps:

Don't remove burnt clothing. However, do make sure the victim is no longer in contact with smoldering materials or exposed to smoke or heat.

Don't immerse large severe burns in cold water. Doing so could cause shock.

Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If there is no breathing or other sign of circulation, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

Elevate the burned body part or parts. Raise above heart level, when possible.

Cover the area of the burn. Use a cool, moist, sterile bandage; clean, moist cloth; or moist towels.


Sunburn: First aid
Signs and symptoms of sunburn usually appear
 within a few hours of exposure, bringing pain, 
redness, swelling and occasional blistering. 
Because exposure often affects a large area of 
your skin, sunburn can cause headache, fever
 and fatigue. 

If you have a sunburn: 
Take a cool bath or shower. Adding 1/2 cup
 (about 120 milliliters) of cornstarch, oatmeal 
or baking soda to your bath water may provide 
some relief. 

Apply an aloe vera lotion several times a day. 
Leave blisters intact to speed healing and 
avoid infection. If they burst on their own,
 apply an antibacterial ointment on the open
If needed, take an over-the-counter pain reliever
 such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin,
 naproxen (Aleve) or acetaminophen (Tylenol). 
Don't give children or teenagers aspirin. It may
 cause Reye's syndrome, a rare but potentially
 fatal disease. 
Do not use petroleum jelly, butter or other home
 remedies on your sunburn. They can prevent or
 delay healing. 
If your sunburn begins to blister or if you 
experience immediate complications, such as rash,
 itching or fever, see your doctor. 


You should suspect a serious injury if:
-victim cannot use body part. 
-visible bone fragments. 
-feeling of a snap, pop or bones grating. 
-bruising, swelling or other deformity. 
-loss of sensation in extremity.
-cause of injury suggests that it may be severe.

Care - RICE

REST -do not let the person move if possible.

IMMOLBILIZE - stabilize and do not move the injured extremity.

COLD+- use ice or ice pack for pain and swelling.

ELEVATION - slightly elevate extremity to reduce swelling


To keep a body part from moving.

- Only if you need to move the victim.

- Only if you do not cause further injury.




- In the position you find it.

- Above and below the site of the injury.



 - Anatomical - uses another part of the victims body to immobilize the injury.

- Soft - uses a towel, pillow or triangular bandage.

- Rigid - uses a board or stick. 

Heat Related Emergencies


Heat Exhaustion: Signs and Signals

-Normal or below normal body temperature


- Sweating                - Cool, pale, moist skin


- Heat cramps          - Headache


- Nausea                   - Dizziness


- Weakness              - Exhaustion


If you suspect heat exhaustion:

Get the person out of the sun and into a shady or air-conditioned location.

  • Loosen or remove the person's clothing
  • Lay the person down and elevate the legs and feet slightly.
  • the person drink cool water or other nonalcoholic beverage without caffeine
  • Monitor the person carefully. Heat exhaustion can quickly become heatstroke.
  • Cool the person by spraying or sponging him or her with cool water and fanning.
  • If fever greater than 102 F (38.9 C), fainting, confusion or seizures occur, call 911 or emergency medical help.


    Heat Stroke


     - Signs and Signals


     - Vomiting

    -High body temperature

    -Red, hot skin that can be either moist or dry

    -The pulse may be rapid or weak

    -Breathing is often rapid or shallow

    -A change in level of consciousness


    If you suspect heatstroke:

  • Move the person out of the sun and into a shady or air-conditioned space.
  • Call 911 or emergency medical help.
  • Cool the person by covering him or her with damp sheets or by spraying with cool water. Direct air onto the person with a fan or newspaper.
  • Have the person drink cool water or other nonalcoholic beverage without caffeine, if he or she is able.


    Skin Cancer Can Kill You

    What Is Our Risk from Sun Exposure?

             Skin cancer is the most serious risk.

                 You are at greater risk if you

  • Have lighter skin with freckles, moles
  • Work at higher elevations
  • Work around reflective material, like water or concrete
  • Unnecessary Exposure to Ultra Violet Radiation

    You can protect yourself with

  • Long-sleeved shirts, pants in neutral colors
  • Broad-brimmed hat, neck flap
  • Safety glasses with tinted polarizing lenses
  • SPF 15-25 sun block 30 minutes before work, then every 2 to 3 hours
  • Check skin for early signs of cancer, see a dermatologist for check- ups

    You can protect yourself with

  • Long-sleeved shirts, pants in neutral colors
  • Broad-brimmed hat, neck flap
  • Safety glasses with tinted polarizing lenses
  • SPF 15-25 sun block 30 minutes before work, then every 2 to 3 hours
  • Check skin for early signs of cancer, see a dermatologist for check- ups


    What to look for

  • ASYMMETRY: Most early melanomas are asymmetrical. A line through the middle would not create matching halves.
  • BORDER: Borders of early melanomas are often uneven and may have scalloped or notched edges.
  • COLOR: Varied shades of brown, tan, or black are often the first sign of melanoma. Red, white, and blue may appear later.
  • DIAMETER: Early melanomas tend to grow larger than common moles - at least the size of a pencil eraser.


    What Are the Hazards of Hot Weather?

    It can lead to heat stress, exhaustion, or stroke.


    What are the hazards of Hot Weather?

    It can lead to heat stress, exhaustion or stroke.

  • Heat exposure
  • High humidity
  • Non-breathing synthetic clothing
  • Not drinking enough fluids to replace sweat
  • Hard work, body heat, not being "acclimatized"

    Heat stress

  • Can lead to heat rash, cramps, exhaustion, stroke
  • May be more likely if you are overweight, not fit.  

Cold Related Emergencies


Under most conditions your body maintains a healthy temperature. However, when exposed to cold

temperatures, especially with a high wind chill factor and high humidity, or to a cool, damp environment for prolonged
periods, your body's control mechanisms may fail to keep your body temperature normal.

When more heat is lost than your body can generate, hypothermia, defined as an internal body temperature

 less than 95 F (35 C), can result.


Wet or inadequate clothing, falling into cold water and even not covering your head during cold weather can

increase your chances of hypothermia.


Signs and symptoms

  • Shivering
  • Slurred speech
  • Abnormally slow breathing
  • Loss of coordination
  • Cold, pale skin
  • Confusion or memory loss
  • Fatigue, lethargy or apathy
  • Bright red, cold skin (infants)


    Signs and symptoms usually develop slowly. People with hypothermia typically experience gradual loss

     of mental acuity and physical ability, so they may be unaware that they need emergency medical treatment.

    Older adults, infants, young children and people who are very lean are at particular risk. Other people at higher

     risk of hypothermia include those whose judgment may be impaired by mental illness or Alzheimer's disease

    and people who are intoxicated, homeless or caught in cold weather because their vehicles have broken down.

     Other conditions that may predispose people to hypothermia are malnutrition, cardiovascular disease and an

    underactive thyroid


    Emergency Treatment

    Move victim to warmer area or out of wind. If victim is unconscious, call for EMS,
    and check breathing.

    Have victim rest

    Remove wet clothing.

    Wrap victim in dry blankets or clothing

    f victim is conscious and able to drink, give warm, nonalcoholic, noncaffeinated liquid


    Could Increase Danger

    Wet Clothing


    Very Young or Old


    Drinking Alcohol


    If victim does not improve within a few minutes or worsens, call for EMS. Monitor ABCs until EMS arrives



    Frost Bite


    When exposed to very cold temperatures, skin and underlying tissues may freeze, resulting in frostbite. The areas most likely to be affected by frostbite are your hands, feet, nose and ears. If your skin looks white or grayish-yellow, is very cold and has a hard or waxy feel, you may have frostbite. Your skin may also itch, burn or feel numb. Severe frostbite can cause blistering and hardening. As the area thaws, the flesh becomes red and painful.


    First Aid for Frostbite


    If your fingers, ears or other areas get frostbite:

  • Get out of the cold.
  • Warm your hands by tucking them under your arms. If your nose, ears or face is frostbitten, warm
  •  the area by covering it with dry, gloved hands.
  • Don't rub the affected area. Never rub snow on frostbitten skin.
  • Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes if possible.
  • If there's any chance the affected areas will freeze again, don't thaw them out.
  • If they're already thawed out, wrap them up so that they don't become frozen again.
  • Get emergency medical help if numbness remains during warming. If you can't get help immediately, warm severely frostbitten hands or feet in warm - not hot - water. You can warm other frostbitten areas,
  • such as your nose, cheeks or ears, by covering them with your warm hands or by applying warm cloths.

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